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Sjogren’s Syndrome and Oral Care – A Review

S. Lavanya

Abstract


Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a complex autoimmune disease characterized by a broad spectrum of clinical and serological manifestations. Patients with SS experience immune-mediated destruction of salivary and lacrimal glands leading to reduced lacrimal and salivary flow. Dry eyes and dry mouth together with fatigue are among the most common complaints. Extraglandular manifestations, such as involvement of the peripheral nervous, pulmonary, or gastrointestinal system, kidney, skin, myalgias, and arthralgias, are frequently seen leading to reduced quality of life. A range of autoantibodies can be present in SS such as anti-SSA/Ro (SS autoantigen A) and anti-SSB/La (SS autoantigen B) antibodies, rheumatoid factor, cryoglobulins, and antinuclear antibodies. Patients with primary SS also have an increased risk of B cell lymphomas. The predominant effects of SS on the oral cavity are mainly consequent to hypo salivation. Recent evidence reveals that over half of the patients with PSS experienced an oral symptom as their first manifestation of the condition. Lack of saliva causes difficulties in oral function.

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References


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